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英理学习汇总(2017.12-2018.1)

2019年2月16日 - 法律效力

从上年岁暮初阶,在办事之外扩展了多少个普通学习内容:天天英历史学习,古诗词朗诵和声乐磨练。以下是作者二零一八年的天天英艺术学习布署:

上学目标

经过读英文原著来进展自身在差距领域的积极性词汇量,升高小编表明能力

读书质地(6本电子版英文原著)

13 Things Mentally Strong People Don’t do 

The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People 

Rework 

The Social Animal 

The Shortest History of Europe

A Brief History of Humankind 

行动系统

读书:天天睡前读书,标记书中实用的、值得学习的语句

星期四:从书中摘录句子,并鲜明上周每一日的切实学习内容

星期五到周六:每日二十七分钟,专注执行学习职责——以词汇为基本,深远驾驭,增添主动词汇量

周五:复习本周攻读内容,巩固回忆

脚下早就落成了2本书,在此处先汇总一下,从下一本Rework开首会以另一种艺术和豪门享用:

  1. Many people give up because they have a fixed mindset about their
    abilities. They don’t think that they have any control over their level
    of talent so they don’t bother improving and trying again after
    failure. 

Bother 拓展:

bother to do/ bother doing something 费心去做某事

Bother someone to do something  

I don’t like to bother other people 

You don’t need to bother with that.

Have control over something 对xx拥有掌控力

  1. Giving up after the first failure can easily become a
    self-fulfilling prophecy. Each time you quit, you reinforce the
    idea that failure is bad, which in turn will prevent you from trying
    again; thus your fear of failure inhibits your ability to learn. 

to inhibit somebody from doing something   约束某人不做某事

prohibit  禁止,不准  Smoking is prohibited 

self-fulfilling prophecy 自小编已毕的预感

3. Let me see what I have going on and I’ll get back to you.

  1. Developing mental strength isn’t about having to be the best at
    everything. It also isn’t about earning the most money or achieving
    the biggest accomplishments
    . Instead, developing mental strength means
    knowing that you’ll be okay no matter what happens. Whether you’re
    facing serious personal problems, a financial crisis, or a family
    tragedy, You will be best prepared for whatever circumstances you
    encounter when you are mentally strong. 
  1. Not only will you be ready to deal with the realities of life, but
    you will be able to live according to your values no matter what life
    throws your way
    . 不管生活什么对待你
  1. When you become mentally strong, you will be your best
    self(最好的亲善)
    , have the courage to do what’s right, and develop a
    true comfort with who you are and what you are capable of achieving. 
  1. Acknowledge your flaws and weaknesses. Everyone has flaws and
    weakness, whether we like to admit them or not.

Flaws 缺点 weakness 弱点

Acknowledge 和 admit
本身有无数例外的意思,当它们在代表“认同,确认”的时候,更易于被模糊,造成大家的费解。Acknowledge
是认可工作的存在恐怕爆发,但大家不自然能看出认同者的千姿百态到底什么样。而
admit
往往带有“不情愿地认同”某件工作的留存或暴发,尤其是在讲述一件不佳的业务时。所以当大家听到有人
admit 什么的时候,第叁觉得是她出了难点,所以“认可错误或失误”。

  1. Recognizing that you have insecurities, problems and unattractive
    characteristics about yourself can ensure you don’t develop an
    inflated self-perception.

recognize 承认,意识到

  1. These types of accounts fuel our desire to get immediate
    results
    from whatever we’re doing.
  1. Expecting immediate results can set you up to fail/set you up for
    failure
    .

Set you up to fail

Set you up for failure 

11. Hold back 阻碍

Developing an improved sense of self-awareness can help you continue to
recognize what’s holding you back from reaching your full potential.

Identify beliefs and thoughts that will hold you back.

12. Personality traits 

Personality traits are simply: Actions Attitudes Behaviors

  1. You are more likely to talk your way out of problem rather than
    accept the consequences.

You cannot talk yourself out of what you behave yourself into.
那话的意味是,语言改变不了行为给人留下的纪念

  1. Pay attention to your feelings. Check in with yourself about how
    you’r feeling both physically and emotionally.

Check in with:to talk with (someone) in order to report or find out
new information

I have to go to a meeting now, but I’ll check in with you later.

15. Reflect on 反省; 仔细想; 回忆

Spending time alone, whether you choose to mediate or you use some quiet
time to simply reflect on your goals, it is the best way to really get
to know yourself.

Reflecting on the past enough that you can learn from it.

Spend a little bit of time reflecting on your mistakes.

Reflect on your progress and goals daily.

16. Attributing failure to a lack of ability leads to learned
helplessness(习得性无助)
. If you think that your failure is caused
by a lack of ability – and you think you can’t improve upon that
ability- you’re likely to develop a sense of learned helplessness.

attribute to意为“归因于,认为是……的结果

improve upon/on  对…加以改正 to do something in a better way or
with better results than before

  1. Self-compassion means viewing your failures kindly yet
    realistically.  It means understanding that everyone has shortcomings,
    including you, and that failure doesn’t decrease your worth as a
    person. 
  1. When you take a compassionate approach to your own weakness, you
    will be more likely to recognized there is room to grow and improve.

take a .. approach to doing sth:选择二个……的措施做某事

Companionship/fellowship/friendship 

  1. There are always stories floating around about someone who has
    become an”overnight success
  1. Sometimes, people actively seek out(寻找) the hustle and
    bustle(熙熙攘攘,忙乱)
     to prevent themselves from being alone with
    their thoughts.

21. Write in a journal.Journaling can be a powerful tool in helping
you to better understand and learn from your emotions. Writing about
experiences and the emotions surrounding those experiences boosts
immune systems, decrease stress and improves mental health.

Boost 促进、增加

  1. It is starting to gain more mainstream acceptance.
  1. Mindfulness is about developing an acute awareness of what is
    happening within the moment without forming judgment.

24. Don’t miss out on

Don’t miss out on the chance to…

You miss out on the present, You can’t enjoy the present if your mind is
constantly stuck in the past.You’ll miss out on experiencing new
opportunities 
and celebrating the joys of today if you’re distracted
by things that have already occurred.

25. The only mistake is the one from which we learn nothing. 

26. Sharpen your skills 

27. Overlook 忽略

You will over look your skills and talents.

Overlook the facts that…

28. Stereotypes 

Develop an awareness of your stereotypes. Work on getting to know people
instead of automatically judging them based on stereotypes.

  1. Diminish someone else’s accomplishments will only breed feelings
    of resentment.

alleviate, diminish, reduce, decrease, decline区别

alleviatev.在痛楚方面的减轻,缓和

he painkiller alleviated the pain.

diminish
v.指因为不断消耗,在数据方面缓慢回落,也指在素质依然价值的下落

The supply of oil has diminished because of the war.

reduce v.指人为地使某物在数据或重量方面的压缩或下跌

He reduced the amount of money they could spend.

decrease v.指数量上的滑坡;力量依旧强度的弱化。  

The population decreased a lot last year.二零一八年人口数量小幅度下落

decline v. (数目、价格、比率)下落;谢绝,婉言推辞;衰退,衰落。

Last year, the crime rate in Chicago has sharply declined.

He declined our invitation to dinner.

30. Be on the outlook for 留心观望、留心某事

Be on the lookout for times when you are feeling sorry for yourself.

31. A thousand-mile journey begins with the first step and can only be
taken one step at a time.

32. Admission of ignorance is often the first step in our
education. 
admit
往往含有“不情愿地肯定”某件业务的存在或暴发,尤其是在叙述一件不佳的业务时。所以当大家听见有人
admit 什么的时候,第①感觉是他出了难题,所以“认同错误或失误”。

  1. Stephen Covey found a similar pattern in personal effectiveness:
    first build upon a strong core of principles that are not open for
    continuous change; at the same time, be relentless in the quest for
    improvement and continuous self-renewal.

build on ——把…建立于,以…为根基,寄希望于…… 

build upon —- vt. 基于(倚重,把…建立于,以…作基础,把寄托于,指望) 

都表示 把…建立于,以…. 做基础 的时候可以沟通。

Quest for 寻找;寻求(动词)

His quest for perfection is relentless.

In the quest for 探索;追求(名词)

Man will suffer many disappointments in his quest for truth.

relentless 不懈的,坚韧的, 为国损躯的

his relentless pursuit of perfection

  1. Inside-out is a process – a continuing process of renewal based
    on the natural laws that govern human growth and progress. It’s an
    upward spiral
    of growth that leads to progressively higher forms of
    responsible independence and effective interdependence.

Inside-out/outside-in

Your sweater is inside-out

Change only happens from the inside out

Real Change is Possible If You’re Willing to Start From the Inside Out

Inside-out process

  1. Dependent people need others to get what they want. Independent
    people can get what they want through their own effort.
    Interdependent
    people combine their own efforts with the efforts of others to achieve
    their greatest success.
  1. I could think creatively and analytically and organize and
    express my thoughts
    in understandable ways.
  1. If I were emotionally independent, I would be validated from
    within. I would be inner directed. My sense of worth would not
    be a function of being liked or treated well. 

Seek validation/feel validated 

The validation we seek from others must first come from within
ourselves.

Most people allow their egos to seek validation from without. Real
confidence is achieved by finding validation from within.

Inner-directed | directed in thought and action by one’s own scale
of values as opposed to external norms

  1. The material is designed to be a companion in the continual
    process of change and growth
    .

Constant, continuous, continual 

constant指保持一种景况不变 

continual指还从未完,有继续情形的;没完没了地,常常用来指平时重复的动作,即认为没有止境

continuous指中间不间断的,只用来表示不鸣金收兵的动作

  1. Too often parents are also trapped in the management
    paradigm, thinking of control, efficiency, and rules instead of
    direction, purpose, and family feeling.

40. Success is success with self. It’s not in having things, but in
having mastery, having victory over self.

Have mastery over sth 已经了解

Have victory over sth 战胜

Have mastery over self 掌控本身

Have victory over self 击溃本人

  1. A driving force of many people is possessions- not only tangible,
    material possessions such as fashionable clothes, homes, cars, boats
    and jewellery, but also in intangible possessions of fame, glory, or
    social prominence.

Glory 荣誉,荣耀

prominence 卓越,突出,声望

prominent 著名的,突出的,重要的

social prominence 社会地位

  1. But pleasure, per se, offers no deep, lasting satisfaction or
    sense of fulfilment.
    The pleasure-centered person, too soon bored with
    each succeeding level of “fun”, constantly cries for more and more. So
    the next new pleasure has to be bigger and better, more exciting, with a
    bigger “high”. A person in this state becomes almost entirely
    narcissistic, interpreting all of life in terms of the pleasure it
    provides to the self here and now.
  1. Too much undisciplined leisure time in which a person
    continually takes the course (方向)of least resistance gradually waste
    a life. It ensures that a person’s capacities stay dormant, that talents
    remain undeveloped, that the mind and spirit become lethargic and that
    the heart is unfulfilled.
  1. Your discipline comes from within; it is a function of your
    independent will. 
  1. Goals need to be translated into a specific action plan. 

translate each goal to a specific day of the week, either as a
priority item or, even better as a specific appointment. 

  1. Your planning tool should be your servant, never your master. Since
    it has to work for you, it should be tailored to your style, your
    needs, your particular ways.

  1. Desired results – create a clear, mutual understanding of what
    needs to be accomplished, focusing on what, not how; results, not
    methods. 
  1. No recognition is given to intrinsic value; everyone is
    extrinsically defined. 
  1. Be harmonious with our inner most values
  1. Their sense of worth comes from being compared, and someone
    else’s success, to some degree, means their failure. 
  1. This is one of the greatest insights in the field of human
    motivation: satisfied needs do not motivate. It’s only the unsatisfied
    need that motivates. Next to physical survival, the greatest need of a
    human being is psychological survival – to be understood, to be
    affirmed, to be validated, to be appreciated. 

词汇部分

1. discern

To recognize or know sth, especially sth that is not obvious

2. underlying潜在的,隐含的、深层的

Underlying assumption 

Mental and emotional illnesses are really symptoms of an underlying
sense of meaninglessness or emptiness.

3. Embrace拥抱,包括,接受,接纳

Embrace new ideas, different opinions,opportunities 

Wisdom is your perspective of life, your sense of balance, your
understanding of how various parts and principles apply and related to
each other. It embraces judgement, discernment, comprehension.

4. Get by 

1.pass 通过

I moved aside to let him get by.

A lorry blocked the pathway,so that we couldn’t get by.

Please move to the right so he can get by.

2.make ends meet 勉强生存

She gets by on a remarkably small income.

3. escape potentially unpleasant consequences

  1. 勉强过日子;勉强敷衍 If you can get by with what you have, you can
    manage to live or do things in a satisfactory way.

5. Counselor, advisor and consultant 直接的不一致

counselor 和 advisor
基本上可以互用。counselor越发职业化,例如学校里给出学生学习恐怕职业生涯提议的课业顾问。advisor更普遍化,你的意中人给您有的购物的指出,那么她可以叫你的advisor,却不可以叫counselor。consultant是指给出正式,高水准提议的参谋,例如顾问医务卫生人员。它更近乎与汉语里“顾问”的意义,因为我们所说的智囊平时都有“专家”的含义。

6. Be subject to

可能受…影响的;易遭受…的 To be subject to something means to be affected
by it or to be likely to be affected by it.

受…支配的;服从于…的 If someone is subject to a particular set of rules
or laws, they have to obey those rules or laws.

My wants will be subject to my needs and means.

自身的欲望受制于作者的须求和经济情形。

7. Think over VS. Think through 

think over 经常用在口语里,深思远虑的意味,表动作

造句: I’ll have to think it over carefully before I can say yes or not 

hink through 在知情的根基上,想得很透彻,比think over要强

造句: Do not count on others to do your thinking, to think through the
issues and problems of your life.

8. Be composed of VS. consist of 

9. Validate

1. To prove that something is true 证实,确认

  1. 特许,认同,申明有价值 to validate a person

  2. 是立见成效,是富有法律效劳

valid

有效的 eg. A valid passport,  a valid passport 

切合逻辑的,有理有据的 the point you make is perfectly valid 

10. Incremental  增加的,递增的

Incremental development

Making incremental progress in meditation 

It is organized incrementally

11. Suggestions for application 

12. consent 同意、许可

No one can hurt you without your consent.

13. obsolete

老式的,淘汰了的

Is obsolete

Becomes obsolete 

Types of Technology That Are Becoming Obsole

14. lack的用法 

1.lack(for) sth.缺少  

2.be lacking (in) sth.缺乏. 

3.(a) lack of….方面的缺失 

三种用法完全混在协同, 

例句:

1.Alex’s real promble is that he lacks confidence. 

2.He seemed to be lacking in courage  

3.Lack of vitamin B can produce a variety of symptoms

15. continuum [kənˈtɪnjuəm]

A continuum is a set of things on a scale, which have a particular
characteristic to different degrees.

In a hierarchy or continuum of needs, physical survival and financial
security comes first.

16. be basic to 

对—是必须的;基于;对…是素有的

Economic security is basic to one’s opportunity to do much in any other
dimension.

17. Derive  得到,导出; 源于,来自; (从…中) 提取

Derive pleasure/security.. from 

Mr Ying is one of those happy people who derive pleasure from helping
others. 

Suppose I derive much of my security from employment or from my
income or net worth.

18. Wrap up

包裹起来

wrap up in cosy winter clothes

wrap the present in paper

结束

Let’s wrap up the job and go home

But it’s just about time to wrap up for today

Before we wrap up

Wrap up this meeting 

19. is vulnerable to

易受…影响的,脆弱的

20. become insensitive to 

Glory 荣誉,荣耀

21. gratification 满意,满足

be gratified 

We live in a world where instant gratification is available and
encouraged.

22. in retrospect 

thinking about a past event or situation, often with a different opinion
of from the one you had at the time

The decision seems crazy, in retrospect. 

23. narcissistic 自恋的,自笔者陶醉的

34. leisure time 业余时间,闲暇

35. Expand your perspectives  恢宏你的见解

36. prerequisite(to/for/of)前提

Good self-esteem is a prerequisite for a happy life

37. momentum

If a process or movement gains momentum, it keeps developing or
happening more quickly and keeps becoming less likely to stop.

is gaining momentum

Lose momentum 

Maintain the momentum 

38. Center on  以…为主导, 把…当作重点

He is a person who only centers on himself.

By centering our lives on correct principles, we created a solid
foundation for development of the four-life support factors. 

39. affirmation 肯定,认可

Thanks for your affirmation 

40. tremendous 极大的

What one thing could you do that if you did it on a regular basis, would
make a tremendous positive difference in your personal life?

41. integrity 庄敬、有标准的

Have integrity 

42. subordinate(to sb/sth)

从属的,次要的

反义词:superior to 

Feel superior to sb 

Subordinate sb/sth (to sb/sth)

Treat something less important than sb/sth else 

You have the will, the integrity, to subordinate your feelings, your
impulses, your moods to those values.

43. Impulse

On an impulse 近年来冲动

A sudden wish or need to do something, without stopping to think about
the results 

I resisted the impulse to laugh 

I feel the impulse to do something 

He tends to act on impulse

Bought it on an impulse 

44. Organize and execute around priorities 

45. Quadrant 象限

46. Quick fix速效对策,急迅消除办法

47. a frame of mind 心境

Mental attitude or outlook/mood 

Win/Win is a frame of mind and heart that constantlyseeks mutual
benefitin all human interactions.

48. resistance to

most people have a natural resistance to it.

bacteria will develop resistance to them

a resistance to authority

49. defensive

50. Be prone to 易于…的,有…倾向的

Win/Lose people are prone to use position, power, credentials,
possessions or personality to get their way.

51. certificate VS credentials

certificate比较合法,而且多数时候指的是相比较专业的,具有法律意义,能被法律认同的证件、讲明;credential则是相比平日的,它是泛指那个可以用来表达某人的能力和身份的表明或证件

52. Expectation

against expectation 出乎意料的

below expectations {adv.}低于期望值

beyond (one’s) expectation 出人意表(之外),较预期的更大

meet sb.’s expectations

contrary to (one’s) expectation

live up to sb.’s expectations 不辜负某人的期待

53. in comparison with

by comparison 比较起来,用比较艺术

by comparison to {prep.}与…相比

by comparison with {prep.}与…相比

in comparison to {prep.}与…相比

in comparison with==>{adj.}相比较(同…相比起来,与-比较)
{}和…相比起来

54. Repress/Suppress 抑制,镇压

repress feelings

1 to stop yourself from doing something you want to do:
(自制本身想做的事务)

2 if someone represses upsetting feelings, memories etc, they do not
allow themselves to express or think about them

3 to control a group of people by force (武力控制一群人)

55. at the expense/cost/price of  以…为代价

We can’t speed up production at the expense of quality

One person’s success is not achieved at the expense or exclusion of the
success of others.

56. Go for sth 采用某事物

you may want to go for Lose/Win in some circumstances

57. constitute = consist of 组成,构成

To be the parts that together form sth

Female workers constitute the majority of the labor force.

58. conviction 信念 a strong opinion or belief

59. consideration for

Show/ have consideration for other people’s feelings 

60. Empathy 同理心

the ability to understand other people’s feelings 

Empathic = empathetic 移情的,有同理心的

Empathize/ to empathize with (sb/sth)

61. sympathy同情的 

the feeling of being sorry for sb, showing that you care… 

sympathetic

62. autobiography 自传

63. foundational和fundamental

foundational:基本的,基础的

fundamental:一般指中央尺度和规律

64. Outward  adj, adv, n

you can handle the more outward vulnerability with peace and
strength. 

Outward calm cannot hide inward sadness. 

65. frame of reference 参照系,观点,理论

66. Probe (into sth)ask questions or try to discover facts about it

we probe – we ask questions from our own frame of reference

67. counsel 建议

give counsel = advise 

68. Synergy 

to create synergy 

there is natural synergy between … 

69. dividend

If something pays dividends, it brings advantages at a later date.

The time you invest to deeply understand people you love brings
tremendous dividends in open communication.

come up 

1.  近乎;走到邻近 If someone comes up or comes up to you, they approach
you until they are standing close to you.

2. 被提及;被讨论 If something comes up in a conversation or meeting, it
is mentioned or discussed.

  1. 快要爆发;即将到来 If something is coming up, it is about to happen or
    take place.

4. 黑马发生 If something comes up, it happens unexpectedly.

5. 涌出空缺;(商品)上市 If a job comes up or if something comes up
for sale, it becomes available.

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